By Dirk Stroobandt
The roots of this e-book, and of the hot examine box that it defines, lie within the scaling of VLSI expertise. With gigahertz method clocks and ever accelerating layout and approach strategies, interconnects became the proscribing issue for either functionality and density. This expanding effect of interconnects at the procedure implementation house necessitates new instruments and analytic thoughts to help the process clothier. With appreciate to modeling and research, the reaction to interconnect dom inance is evolutionary. Atomistic- and grain-level types of interconnect constitution, and function versions at multi-gigahertz working frequencies, jointly consultant the choice of superior fabrics and method applied sciences (e. g. , damascene copper wires, low-permittivity dielectrics). formerly in major results (e. g. , mutual inductance) are extra into functionality mod els, as older approximations (e. g. , lumped-capacitance gate load versions) are discarded. besides the fact that, on the system-level and chip making plans point, the required reaction to interconnect dominance is progressive. Convergent layout flows don't require simply allotted RLC line versions, repeater wisdom, unifi cations with extraction and research, and so on. particularly, matters comparable to wiring layer task, and early prediction of the source and function envelope for the process interconnect (in specific, in line with statistical versions of the approach interconnect structure), additionally develop into serious. certainly, system-level interconnect prediction has emerged because the enabler of enhanced interconnect modeling, less expensive process architectures, and extra efficient layout technology.
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Extra info for A Priori Wire Length Estimates for Digital Design
6. The bridge. with the three piers that support this research work. leads to three possible ways of applications. 1. Characterizing Circuits A circuit is generally characterized by a netlist. It lists all components in the circuit and all nets (interconnections) between them. A description is also given of which nets are connected to which terminals of which components. 2), from the circuit level to the system level. In order to compare different circuits to each other. we must be able to characterize them.
3). , after partitioning, each elementary block of the circuit belongs to at least one module. 1 The modules in a partitioning are always disjoint with respect to the logic blocks. With this assumption, each logic block of the circuit belongs to exactly one module. Some partitioning algorithms do allow logic blocks to belong to the intersection of two or more modules. , the longest path delay). These cases are not considered here. The partitioning of the circuit into modules results in some nets being connected to blocks in different modules (dashed lines in the figure).
To characterize the complexity of the interconnection structure, we often use a circuit partitioning model. This requires a more elaborate discussion, which is presented in the next sections. 2. Model for Circuit Partitioning The partitioning of a circuit is the process of dividing the circuit in different parts (called modules). 3). , after partitioning, each elementary block of the circuit belongs to at least one module. 1 The modules in a partitioning are always disjoint with respect to the logic blocks.
A Priori Wire Length Estimates for Digital Design by Dirk Stroobandt