By Prof. Pierre Bouverot (auth.)
Adaptation to altitude hypoxia is characterised through a range offunctional alterations which jointly facilitate oxygen trans port from the ambient medium to the cells of the physique. All of those alterations should be visible at one time or one other during hypoxic publicity. but, as already under pressure (Hannon and Vogel, 1977), an exam of the literature provides just a sketchy and infrequently conflicting photo of the precise nature of those alterations and the way they have interaction as a functionality of publicity length. this can be in part as a result of constrained variety of variables explored in a given examine, however it is usually as a result of ameliorations in experimental layout, alterations between species in susceptibility to hypoxia, nonstandardized experimental stipulations, loss of right regulate of actual (e. g. , temperature) and physiological variables (e. g. , physique mass), failure to take measurements at key classes of publicity, and gaps in wisdom approximately a few primary mechanisms. moreover the to be had info on animals local to excessive altitude are meager and/or inconclusive. vast additional paintings lower than well-controlled experimental stipulations is needed earlier than a close photograph could be made. however, it's been a guideline within the prepara tion of this monograph really to summarize the enormously dis persed fabric that constitutes the comparative body structure of version to excessive altitude right into a coherent photograph, than to supply a finished survey of the field.
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Additional info for Adaptation to Altitude-Hypoxia in Vertebrates
It is not possible to make a direct comparison of the ventilatory flow rate, Y, among animals without taking into account the intensity of the O 2 consumption, M 02 , which vari~s ~ith species, size at;ld activity. A valid comparison can be made, using the ratio VjM 02 ' which is the M02-specific ventilation, or the convection requirement of air or water per unit of oxygen uptake. This ratio, sometimes called respiratory equivalent, designates the volume of medium which must be passed over the gas-exchange surface to effect delivery of a unit quantity of oxygen.
5) At given partial pressure of inspired O 2 (pino ), hence elevation, Eq. 5) states that the lower the O 2 extraction coefficient (E02 ; hence the greater the specific ventilation), the higher the O 2 pressure head at the gas-exchange surface, at least in so far as Pout02 can be considered as a valid index of that O 2 pressure head. In air-breathers, such a valid index can easily be taken from the P02 value in the gas vented from the lungs in late expiration, after the dead space has been washed out (end-tidal, or alveolar gas; Chap.
1976). These breathby-breath ventilatory oscillations appear to be affected differently in the various phases of high-altitude exposure, with more dramatic effects during sleep (Sect. 3). They may be less consistently noted in chronic than in acute hypoxic exposure (Brusil et al. 1980). 2 The control of breathing yields a given combination of amplitude (VT) and period (T), which results from the activity of a functional unit, the ventilatory neuromechanical system, organized in a feedback loop: the so-called respiratory centers and the ventilatory pump, interconnected by motor pathways and by sensory afferent pathways from specific receptors in the ventilatory apparatus.
Adaptation to Altitude-Hypoxia in Vertebrates by Prof. Pierre Bouverot (auth.)